hadoop开启Service Level Authorization 服务级认证

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背景描述

  最近在进行安全扫描的之前 ,说hadoop所处漏洞,Hadoop 未授权访问【原理扫描】,完会就参考官方文档及许多资料,在测试环境中进行了开启,后面 就遇到了全都的坑,将会说此人 里后能 想明白的那些的问提,在此记录下吧,这种那些的问提搞了2天。

环境描述

  hadoop版本:2.6.2

操作步骤

1.让你开启服务级认证,需用在core-site.xml文件中开启参数hadoop.security.authorization,将其设置为true

<property>
  <name>hadoop.security.authorization</name>
  <value>true</value>
  <description>Is service-level authorization enabled?</description>
</property>

备注:根据官方文档的解释,设置为true要是simple类型的认证,基于OS用户的认证.现在服务级的认证将会开启了。

增加此参数之前 ,需用重启namenode:

sbin/hadoop-daemon.sh stop namenode
sbin/hadoop-daemon.sh start namenode

咋样知道有无真正的开启了该配置,查看hadoop安全日志SecurityAuth-aiprd.audit,将会有新日志增加,后面 含高认证信息,说明开启成功。

2.针对具体的各个服务的认证,在配置文件hadoop-policy.xml中

<configuration>
  <property>
    <name>security.client.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ClientProtocol, which is used by user code
    via the DistributedFileSystem.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.client.datanode.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ClientDatanodeProtocol, the client-to-datanode protocol
    for block recovery.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.datanode.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for DatanodeProtocol, which is used by datanodes to
    communicate with the namenode.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.inter.datanode.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for InterDatanodeProtocol, the inter-datanode protocol
    for updating generation timestamp.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.namenode.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for NamenodeProtocol, the protocol used by the secondary
    namenode to communicate with the namenode.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

 <property>
    <name>security.admin.operations.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for AdminOperationsProtocol. Used for admin commands.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.refresh.user.mappings.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for RefreshUserMappingsProtocol. Used to refresh
    users mappings. The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and
    group names. The user and group list is separated by a blank. For
    e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".  A special value of "*" means all
    users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.refresh.policy.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for RefreshAuthorizationPolicyProtocol, used by the
    dfsadmin and mradmin commands to refresh the security policy in-effect.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.ha.service.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for HAService protocol used by HAAdmin to manage the
      active and stand-by states of namenode.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.zkfc.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for access to the ZK Failover Controller
    </description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.qjournal.service.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for QJournalProtocol, used by the NN to communicate with
    JNs when using the QuorumJournalManager for edit logs.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.mrhs.client.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for HSClientProtocol, used by job clients to
    communciate with the MR History Server job status etc. 
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <!-- YARN Protocols -->

  <property>
    <name>security.resourcetracker.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ResourceTrackerProtocol, used by the
    ResourceManager and NodeManager to communicate with each other.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.resourcemanager-administration.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ResourceManagerAdministrationProtocol, for admin commands. 
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.applicationclient.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ApplicationClientProtocol, used by the ResourceManager 
    and applications submission clients to communicate with each other.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.applicationmaster.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ApplicationMasterProtocol, used by the ResourceManager 
    and ApplicationMasters to communicate with each other.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.containermanagement.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ContainerManagementProtocol protocol, used by the NodeManager 
    and ApplicationMasters to communicate with each other.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.resourcelocalizer.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ResourceLocalizer protocol, used by the NodeManager 
    and ResourceLocalizer to communicate with each other.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.job.task.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for TaskUmbilicalProtocol, used by the map and reduce
    tasks to communicate with the parent tasktracker.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.job.client.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for MRClientProtocol, used by job clients to
    communciate with the MR ApplicationMaster to query job status etc. 
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>

  <property>
    <name>security.applicationhistory.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>*</value>
    <description>ACL for ApplicationHistoryProtocol, used by the timeline
    server and the generic history service client to communicate with each other.
    The ACL is a comma-separated list of user and group names. The user and
    group list is separated by a blank. For e.g. "alice,bob users,wheel".
    A special value of "*" means all users are allowed.</description>
  </property>
</configuration>

备注:默认有10个服务,每个服务的默认值有的是*,表示的要是任何的用户都都需用对其进行访问。

3.目前只需用针对客户端那些用户后能 访问namenode即可,即修改参数security.client.protocol.acl的值

  <property>
    <name>security.zkfc.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>aiprd</value>
    <description>ACL for access to the ZK Failover Controller
    </description>
  </property>

备注:表示客户端进行对应的用户是aiprd的就都需用访问namenode。

刷新ACL配置:

bin/hdfs dfsadmin -refreshServiceAcl

修改格式如下:

<property>
     <name>security.job.submission.protocol.acl</name>
     <value>user1,user2 group1,group2</value>
</property>

备注:该值是,用户之间逗号隔开,用户组之间用逗号隔开,用户和用户组之间用空格分开,将会里后能 用户,要以空格开头后面 接用户组。

4.远程客户端访问hdfs中文件进行验证

[aiprd@localhost ~]$ hdfs dfs -ls hdfs://hadoop1:9000/
Found 10 items
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 04:31 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/hbase
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  hadoop              0 2019-08-14 06:40 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test01
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 06:22 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test02
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:39 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test03
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 06:100 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test07
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 06:31 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test08
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 06:32 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test09
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 06:41 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test10
drwxrwx---   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 07:06 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test11
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd1 supergroup          0 2019-08-15 00:10 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12

备注:在客户端上,将hadoop的多多线程 运行部署在aiprd用户下,执行命令后能 查看其中的文件、文件夹信息。一齐,aiprd用户也是启动namenode的用户即hadoop中的超级用户,全都,查就看的文件的用户组有的是aiprd.

5.测试,将会增加将会使用许多的用户有无都需用

  <property>
    <name>security.zkfc.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>aiprd1</value>
    <description>ACL for access to the ZK Failover Controller
    </description>
  </property>

刷新ACL配置。

bin/hdfs dfsadmin -refreshServiceAcl

将用户修改aiprd1。即里后能 客户端的多多线程 运行用户是aiprd1后能 访问。

6.在客户端中,继续使用之前 部署在aiprd用户下的hadoop客户端进行访问

[aiprd@localhost ~]$ hdfs dfs -ls hdfs://hadoop1:9000/
ls: User aiprd (auth:SIMPLE) is not authorized for protocol interface org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.ClientProtocol, expected client Kerberos principal is null

备注:发现aiprd用户是后能 访问的了

7.客户端中,在aiprd1用户下,在部署hadoop客户端,完会进行访问

[aiprd1@localhost ~]$ hdfs dfs -ls hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12
Found 6 items
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/01
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/02
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/03
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:44 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/04
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:49 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/05
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd1 supergroup          0 2019-08-15 00:10 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/10

备注:是后能 访问的,全都,将会要使用用户来进行认证,里后能 客户端多多线程 运行对应的OS用户,需用要和hadoop-policy.xml中配置的用户一致以能不后能 访问。

既然,服务级参数的值,都需用是用户,也都需用是用户组,用户验证完了,里后能 来验证用户组吧,此时,就遇到了全都的坑。

1.还是之前 的参数security.zkfc.protocol.acl,这次使用,用户组

  <property>
    <name>security.zkfc.protocol.acl</name>
    <value>aiprd hadoop</value>
    <description>ACL for access to the ZK Failover Controller
    </description>
  </property>

刷新ACL配置:

/bin/hdfs dfsadmin -refreshServiceAcl

里后能 那些的问提来了,之前 的用户是基于OS级别的判断,这种应该也是,也要是判断我这种用户到底是有的是这种用户组后面 的。

2.在客户端上aiprd用户下的多多线程 运行是都需用访问的,经过之前 的验证里后能 那些的问提

3.在客户端上,在aiprd1下部署hadoop客户端多多线程 运行,正常是访问不了hdfs的,里后能 将aiprd1加入到这种hadoop组下,理论上是都需用访问的

[aiprd1@localhost ~]$ id aiprd1
uid=1001(aiprd1) gid=1001(aiprd1) groups=1001(aiprd1),1002(hadoop)
[aiprd1@localhost ~]$ hdfs dfs -ls hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12
ls: User aiprd1 (auth:SIMPLE) is not authorized for protocol interface org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.protocol.ClientProtocol, expected client Kerberos principal is null

经过验证,是不都需用的,说明这种hadoop分组并里后能 起作用。

试了如下的依据:

  • --1.hadoop.security.group.mapping 改了这种参数的值,真是这种参数有默认的值,不需用进行设置的
  • --2.在hdfs所有的节点都建了hadoop用户组,还是里后能 处理那些的问提
  • --3.默认的hdfs中文件的用户组是supergroup,也尝试将aiprd1加入到supergroup中,还是里后能 作用
  • --4.使用aiprd这种超级用户,将hdfs中文件的用户组改为hadoop还是里后能 效果
  • --5.尝试在namenode上将aiprd加入到hadoop组还是里后能 效果。

真是里后能 依据,开启DEBUG吧,开启之前 ,获得信息如下:

2019-08-15 15:12:27,188 WARN org.apache.hadoop.security.ShellBasedUnixGroupsMapping: got exception trying to get groups for user aiprd1: id: aiprd1: No such user

2019-08-15 15:12:27,188 WARN org.apache.hadoop.security.UserGroupInformation: No groups available for user aiprd1
adoop.hdfs.protocol.ClientProtocol, expected client Kerberos principal is null
:SIMPLE)
2019-08-15 15:12:27,188 DEBUG org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Server: Socket Reader #1 for port 9000: responding to null from 192.168.100.1:61985 Call#-3 Retry#-1
2019-08-15 15:12:27,188 DEBUG org.apache.hadoop.ipc.Server: Socket Reader #1 for port 9000: responding to null from 192.168.100.1:61985 Call#-3 Retry#-1 Wrote 243 bytes.
izationException: User aiprd1 (auth:SIMPLE) is not authorized for protocol interface 

意思是说,当试着为这种用户查找用户组的之前 ,里后能 这种用户,就很奇怪,明明是有用户的啊。完会就基于这种报错各种查找,完会在下面的文章中获得了点启示:

https://www.e-learn.cn/content/wangluowenzhang/1136832
To accomplish your goal you'd need to add your user account (clott) on the NameNode machine and add it to hadoop group there.

If you are going to run MapReduce with your user, you'd need your user account to be configured on NodeManager hosts as well.

4.按照这种意思,在Namenode节点上,创建aiprd1用户,并加入到hadoop用户组后面 。

[root@hadoop1 ~]# useradd -G hadoop aiprd1
[root@hadoop1 ~]# id aiprd1
uid=1003(aiprd1) gid=1003(aiprd1) groups=1003(aiprd1),1002(hadoop)
[root@hadoop1 ~]# su - aiprd
[aiprd@hadoop1 ~]$ jps
15289 NameNode
15644 Jps

备注:此节点运行了NameNode.

5.再次在hadoop客户端上,aiprd1用户下执行查询操作

[aiprd1@localhost ~]$ hdfs dfs -ls hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12
Found 6 items
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/01
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/02
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/03
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:44 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/04
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:49 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/05
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd1 supergroup          0 2019-08-15 00:10 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/10

都需用进行查询了。

在客户端上,将aiprd1对应的用户组hadoop去掉 。

[aiprd1@localhost ~]$ id
uid=1001(aiprd1) gid=1001(aiprd1) groups=1001(aiprd1)

再次执行查询:

[aiprd1@localhost ~]$ hdfs dfs -ls hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12
Found 6 items
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/01
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/02
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:43 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/03
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:44 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/04
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd  supergroup          0 2019-08-14 23:49 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/05
drwxr-xr-x   - aiprd1 supergroup          0 2019-08-15 00:10 hdfs://hadoop1:9000/test12/10

还是都需用查询的,都需用看出来,用户组和客户端上用户所在的组里后能 关系,需用在Namenode节点设置。

查看官方,有如下解释:

Once a username has been determined as described above, the list of groups is determined by a group mapping service, configured by the hadoop.security.group.mapping property. The default implementation, org.apache.hadoop.security.JniBasedUnixGroupsMappingWithFallback, will determine if the Java Native Interface (JNI) is available. If JNI is available, the implementation will use the API within hadoop to resolve a list of groups for a user. If JNI is not available then the shell implementation, org.apache.hadoop.security.ShellBasedUnixGroupsMapping, is used. This implementation shells out with the bash -c groups command (for a Linux/Unix environment) or the net group command (for a Windows environment) to resolve a list of groups for a user.

An alternate implementation, which connects directly to an LDAP server to resolve the list of groups, is available via org.apache.hadoop.security.LdapGroupsMapping. However, this provider should only be used if the required groups reside exclusively in LDAP, and are not materialized on the Unix servers. More information on configuring the group mapping service is available in the Javadocs.

For HDFS, the mapping of users to groups is performed on the NameNode. Thus, the host system configuration of the NameNode determines the group mappings for the users.

Note that HDFS stores the user and group of a file or directory as strings; there is no conversion from user and group identity numbers as is conventional in Unix.

对于HDFS来说,用户到组的映射关系是在NameNode上执行的,完会,NameNode的主机系统配置决定了用户组的映射。

实验之前 才看明白,之前 根本里后能 理解,以为是从客户端拿到用户对应的用户组信息,完会到NameNode来进行判断呢。

全都,到这里,基于服务级的ACL,用户、用户组的都将会都需用配置了,对于许多的服务,都需用根据实际状况进行配置。这后面 若果求那些用户、用户组都需用连接上来就好了。

小结

  1.hadoop.security.authorization设置为true,开启simple认证,即基于os用户的认证,配置之前 ,重启namenode

  2.acl为用户认证的,保证服务acl中配置的值与客户端多多线程 运行运行对应的用户一致即可访问。

  3.acl为用户组的,客户端将会使用A访问,里后能 要在NameNode上创建用户A,将A加入到acl用户组,验证过程:获取客户端的用户,比如为A,NameNode节点上,通过用户A,到NameNode的主机上来查找用户A对应的用户组信息,将会NameNode上里后能 用户A,认证失败,将会有用户A,里后能 在acl用户组上,认证失败,有用户A,用户A在acl配置的组后面 ,认证成功。

  4.acl配置的用户组与客户端多多线程 运行用户,所在的用户组里后能 关系。

  5.每次修改hadoop-policy.xml中的值,记得要执行刷新操作。

另外:要注意,不同版本的参数,配置将会不同,要看和此人 hadoop版本一致的文档。

https://hadoop.apache.org/docs/r2.6.2/hadoop-project-dist/hadoop-common/ServiceLevelAuth.html

 https://hadoop.apache.org/docs/r2.6.2/hadoop-project-dist/hadoop-hdfs/HdfsPermissionsGuide.html#Group_Mapping

文档创建时间:2019年8月15日17:100:24